The normal possessive pronouns are un- stressed enclitics added to the noun. Some put all the elements together, and others leave each element separate. Nouns with absolute singulars ending in -a, like ndma, form the indefinite plural by dropping the final -a and adding -an. The furtive i is indicated by italicization, e. They are calling me. If there is any pause, the place for it is between the pronoun and the preposition. There is also no unanimity among writers of Kurdish with regard to the writing of compound words.

Note especially that when the prepositional comple- ment is 3rd-person singular, nothing is added to the verb stem. In past transitive verbs the space normally available for a preposed pronominal complement is taken by the agent affix. Nouns with absolute singulars ending in -a, like ndma, form the indefinite plural by dropping the final -a and adding -an. All passive verbs are intransitive by definition and therefore never form their past tenses on the ergative model. I’ll give you ten thousand liras. Occasionally the sequence is spelled in full with the correct number of y’s, but normally only one y is written. He wants to buy a book.

If you had written it, you wouldn’t have forgotten it. Because Sorani Kurdish dictionaries are not easily obtainable, I have made the vocabulary as large as possible.

The correct tense for English translation hatuccho gained from context. Gele zimanwan u rojh hellatnasf henderi ferengf degell zimanf Kurdf xerek bune, zurbey ew zanayaney ke be sheweyekf gishtf ya taybetf le zimanf Kurdf duwawin gutuyane ddrama em zimane le biney zimanekanf Hfnd ‘Taken from the internet at www.


When a postposed directional complement is turned into a preposed pro- nominal enclitic, the directional -d becomes -e. Again, a 3rd- person singular logical-object pronoun is not expressed; it is built into the verb.

An on-line Sorani dictionary is available at www.

Other constructions involving bir are -i ba bird hdtin and -i bir kawtinawa ‘to remember,’ all of which usually take preposed pronominal enclitics. Outside of that area, south to Kermanshah and east as far as Bijar, the language is known as Gorani, or South Sorani, which is a Mischsprache that is basically Persian in structure but Kurdish in vocabulary. The -ydn- in biydn- shdretawa is another example of a resumptive object pronoun.

I’ve known for a very long time The furtive i is indicated by italicization, e. M da pesf dkhnin to stuff the skin with straw. You want to write a letter. I have a question. In a construction such as the following: I broke bread with you I enjoyed your hospitality. Were someone who didn’t know to see them, he would call them both swallows.

Transitivity and intransitivity are retained in the participle, i. He asks a question of us.

#slemani???? Instagram tag –

Generally, the ergative gatucho has been displaced by the non-ergative construc- tion on hatucuo model of intransitive past verbs and doubtlessly under the influ- ence of Persian. The only real inconsistency in the writing system is the representation of the sequence ye, which is written 4 as though it were ya, which is written the same. Kurdish-English Dictionary, Dialect of Sulaima- nia.

In the table below are all available forms using ditin ‘to see’ as an example; the logical objects are given in boldface.


This piece was written after the Baathist attack on Halabja with chemical weapons in March, AJ tamdshd-kirdin to look; j oL. When added to the absolute, the noun has a figurative meaning; for hatucbo, concrete meanings the definite form is used. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives. The spelling of this suffix is inconsistent. It is also the “lexical” form of the noun, i.

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Sorani, having lost independent oblique pronouns, resorts to pronominal enclitics to express the agent. V aw kaw- shdnd juteki hatgira pick out a pair of those shoes; dastim le hatgrin leave me alone; 2 to hold, keep: In most other dialects, particularly Iranian varieties, the present stem combines with the modal marker da- to become de.

The Absolute State of the Noun. What did my father do for a living? Without speaking, he left. In South Sorani, however, a split has occurred.

Should we open the door?

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When added to words that have an en- clitic pronoun attached, -tsh intervenes between the noun and pronoun. Let them sit back down. Since otherwise verbs are hxtucho identically in all varieties of Sorani Kurdish, the modal marker will be shown in this book as dd- and examples will be given with d- or dd- as they occur in the texts from which they have been taken. I can see you.

Should I come tomorrow?